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Ch'ang-ning

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Ch'ang-ning 常寧, Dec. 8, 1657-1703, July 20, was the fifth son of Emperor Shih-tsu (see under Fu-lin) by a secondary consort, ne é Ch'ên (陳). After 1820 his name was written Ch'ang-ying 常穎 to avoid the personal name of Emperor Hsüan-tsung (see under Min-ning). In 1661 his father died and his half-brother, Emperor Shêng-tsu, who was three years his senior, succeeded to the throne. Ten years later he was given, by Emperor Shêng-tsu, a princedom of the first degree with the designation, Kung (恭親王). His palace was situated on T'ieh-shih-tzû<> hu-t'ung 鐵獅子胡同 in Peking.

In 1690, when expeditionary forces were sent to Inner Mongolia to stem the southern advance of Galdan [q.v.] , Ch'ang-ning and another elder half-brother, Fu-ch'uan [q.v.] , were made commanders-in-chief. Ch'ang-ning was given the title, An-pei Ta-chiang-chün 安北大將軍, with orders to lead an army through the Pass, Hsi-fêng k'ou 喜峰口, but was soon directed to combine his force with that of Fu-ch'üan. Their joint forces defeated Galdan, but because they allowed the latter to escape unmolested, most of the officers in the force were either degraded or fined (see under Fu-ch'üan). Ch'ang-ning was deprived of his place in the council of princes and high officials, and was fined a sum equivalent to three years' salary. In 1696 he again took part in the expedition to the Kerulun River in Mongolia to fight Galdan (see under Fiyangg ǔ).

After Ch'ang-ning died, he was not given full posthumous honors, considering his status as a [70]prince, or compared with the honors granted Fu-ch'üan who died nineteen days later. His title ceased with his death, and his descendants inherited diminishing ranks in accordance with the written law of the dynasty. These descendants belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. One of them, Sung-sen 松森 (T. 吟濤, chin-shih of 1865), served as president of the Court of Colonial Affairs from 1889 to 1893.

[ 清皇室四譜 Ch'ing Huang-shih ssˆ-p'u ; 1/ 225/8b; see bibliography under Fu-ch'üan.]

FANG CHAO-YING