Ch'ung-shih 崇實 (T. 子華, H. 樸山, 惕盦), Aug. 26, 1820-1876, Dec. 4, official, was the elder son of Lin-ch'ing [q.v.] of the Wanyen (完顏) clan and the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner. Though reared in a family of affluence, Ch'ung-shih was exceptionally modest and studious. In 1850 he became a chin-shih and was selected a bachelor of the Hanlin Academy, graduating two years later as a compiler. He was speedily promoted, and in two years (1854) became acting senior vice-president of the Board of Revenue. Such rapid advancement was perhaps due to the fact that he had contributed several times to the greatly depleted national treasury where shortage of revenue even threatened the regular payment of salaries to government officials. For six months in 1854-55 he was sent to investigate a case of corruption in Szechwan, and after returning to Peking early in 1855, was made (in June) junior vice-president of the Board of Works. But scarcely two months had elapsed before he was accused of favoring one of his servants in a legal case and was degraded--an incident that retarded his official career for three years.
In 1858 he was recalled as a sub-director of the Court of the Imperial Stud and in the following year, after being made a sub-chancellor of the Grand Secretariat, was appointed imperial resident in Tibet. At that time the Taiping Rebellion was raging in South China and communications between Szechwan and Tibet were interrupted by the aborigines. Early in 1860 he went to Chengtu, Szechwan, where he was detained by imperial order to investigate accusations against the governor-general of the province, Tsêng Wang-yen 曾望顏 (T. 瞻孔 H. 卓如, chin-shih of 1822). The accusations were substantiated and Tsêng was discharged. Ch'ung-shih then served as acting governor-general of Szechwan and at once directed the defense of the provincial capital against the bandits that were swarming in Szechwan and neighboring provinces. He did much to stiffen the morale of the provincial troops who gradually subdued some of the insurgents and recovered several districts. When Lo Ping-chang [q.v.] arrived at Chengtu as governor-general in October 1861, Ch'ung-shih was made Tartar General of the garrison at Chengtu, a post he held until he returned to Peking (1871). During this term in office he helped to stabilize and maintain order in Szechwan and the vicinity-taking part in the capture of Shih Ta-k'ai [q.v.] and other insurgent leaders, clearing Kweichow of bandits (see under T'ang Chiung), and settling several cases involving conflict between the Catholic missionaries (see under Li Hung-chang) and the people of Yü-yang, Szechwan, and Tsun-i, Kweichow.
In 1871 Ch'ung-shih was granted his request to return to Peking and was appointed lieutenant-general of the Mongol Bordered White Banner. Two years later he served as acting military lieutenant-general of Jehol where, with the help of Tso Pao-kuei (see under Sung Ch'ing) who was then a major, he exterminated a large body of bandits. In 1874 Ch'ung-shih was made president of the Board of Punishments and was sent to investigate several cases of corruption at Shanhaikuan. In the following year he was dispatched to Shêng-ching (Mukden) to stop the activities of bandits and was made acting military governor of Shêng-ching, a post he held until his death. During his term at Mukden he subdued many bands of robbers and reformed the civil administration. He was canonized as Wên-ch'in 文勤.
Ch'ung-shih wrote his own nien-p'u, entitled 惕盦年譜 T'i-an nien-p'u, and a volume of poems, entitled 適齋詩集 Shih-chai shih-chi. These two works, also known as 完顏文勤公集, Wan-yen Wên-ch'in kung chi, were printed by his son, Sung-shên 嵩申 (T. 伯屏 H. 犢山 , 1841-1891), chin-shih of 1868 and a corrector of the Hanlin Academy, who served as president of the Board of Punishments during the years 1889-91.
[2/52/37a; T'i-an nien-p'u.]