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Chang Chih-wan

Chang Shih-wan 張之萬 (T. 子青 H. 鑾坡), 1811-1897, official and painter, was a native of Nan-p'i, Chihli. His father, Chang Yü-ts'ê張玉冊 (T. 壽圖) was a pa-kung of 1813 who held minor posts in the capital for some twenty years. Chang Chih-wan became a chü-jên in 1840 and a chin-shih in 1847 — this last with the highest honors known as chuang-yüan. He officiated as associate examiner of the Hupeh provincial examination in 1849 and as chief examiner of the Honan provincial examination in 1851. In 1852 he was appointed educational commissioner of the latter province. As the Taiping Rebellion was spreading northward and the Nien-fei (see under Sêng-ko-lin-ch'in) were active in the region of Honan, Chang Chih-wan memorialized from Kaifeng on matters of defense and suppression, though this was not expected of one of his rank. Upon his return to the capital in 1857 he was ordered to serve in the School for Princes (see under Yin-chên), and a year later became tutor to Prince I-ho (see under Min-ning), eighth son of Emperor Hsüan-tsung. When Emperor Wên-tsung (see under I-chu) died in Jehōl in 1861, Chang Chih-wan was one of those whom I-huan [q.v.] consulted before Su-shun's [q.v.] party was ejected. Immediately thereafter Chang Chih-wan was made junior vice-president of the Board of Ceremonies. As Emperor Mu-tsung (see under Tsai-ch'un) was at this time still an infant, the two Dowager Empresses ruled jointly as regents. Hence as a member of the Board of Ceremonies Chang Chih-wan was ordered to compile, with the help of others, a work setting forth examples from Chinese history of good administration of empresses and notable regencies by dowager empresses. This work, which was given officially the title 治平寶鑑 Chih-p'ing pao-chien, was completed in 1862 in 20 chüan, but was not printed.

Early in 1863 Chang Chih-wan was made governor of Honan. He had been acting in that capacity since late in the previous year and held the post until 1865. During this time Honan and the neighboring provinces were ravaged by the Nien-fei. As governor, he strengthened the militia of Honan, and these forces were given the name Yü-chün (豫軍) after the manner of the Hsiang-chün of Hunan (see under Tsêng Kuo-fan) and the Huai-chun of Anhwei (see under Li Hung-chang), although they were less prominent. In 1865 he became director-general of Yellow River and Grand Canal Conservancy and in 1866 director-general of grain transport. In 1870 he was made governor of Kiangsu, and in the following year was appointed governor-general of Min-Chê (Fukien and Chekiang), but he declined the promotion, begging leave to retire on account of the advanced age of his mother. He remained in retirement until 1882 (after his mother's death), when he was made president of the Board of War. After being transferred to the presidency of the Board of Punishments (1883) he was ordered to serve in the Grand Council (1884) and in 1885 was appointed associate Grand Secretary. From 1884 he also served as chief tutor in the School for Princes. After the marriage of Emperor Tê-tsung (see Tsai-t'ien), he was awarded the title of Grand Guardian of the Heir Apparent and was then promoted to Grand Secretary with the privilege of using a two-bearer sedan chair in the Palace precincts. In 1893 he was ordered to make preparations for the celebration of the sixtieth birthday of the Empress Dowager, (see under Hsiao-ch'in), which came in 1894. In that year, owing to his advanced age, he was ordered to cease serving in the Grand Council. After repeated requests he was granted retirement in 1896 and died in the summer of the following year at the age of 87 sui. He was given various posthumous honors, was canonized as Wên-ta 文達, and his name was entered in the Temple of Eminent Statesmen.

Chang Chih-wan was a celebrated painter — particularly of landscapes. In his early years he was a good friend of Tai Hsi [q.v.]. As Tai was likewise a well-known painter they were sometimes referred to by their places of origin as “ Tai of the South and Chang of the North ” (南戴北張). Chang Chih-wan's collected literary works, in 4 chüan, bear the title 張文達公遺集 Chang Wên-ta kung i-chi. It is recorded that he left a work on river conservancy, entitled 治河芻言 Chih-ho ch'u-yen. His two sons, Chang Chia-yin 張嘉蔭 (T. 同蘇) and Chang Jui-yin 張瑞蔭 (T. 蘭浦, 1867-1922), both achieved moderate fame as painters.

[ 1/444/2b; 2/57/20a; 6/1/1a; 19/ 辛下 /1a; Nan-p'i hsien chih (1932, with portrait and photographs of his tomb) 8/56b; L. T. C. L. H. M., p. 264; Chin-shih jên-wu chih (see under Wêng T'ung-ho), p. 272.]