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Chang Ts'un-jên

Chang Ts'un-jên 張存仁, d. 1652, a native of Liao-yang, was a colonel in the Ming army under Tsu Ta-shou [q.v.] when the latter surrendered to the Manchus in 1631. He joined[57] the Manchu forces at that time, was made a hereditary colonel of the first class, and in 1636 was appointed president (ch'êng chêng 承政) of the Censorate with the hereditary title of baron (meiren i janggin 梅勒章京) of the third class. (Some sources say the title was of the first class). In 1640 and 1641 he submitted plans and suggestions for the campaign against the Mings, including the taking of Chin-chou with the aid of propaganda literature addressed to the Mongols inside the city wall. After the fall of Chin-chou in 1642 he wrote to Wu San-kuei [q.v.] urging him to come over to the Manchu side. In the summer of that year, with the extension of the banner system to Chinese auxiliaries, he was made meiren ejen 梅勒額真 lieutenant-general, of the Chinese Bordered Blue Banner. In 1643 he served under Jirgalang [q.v.] and was in charge of the cannon of his Banner at the taking of the cities of Chung-hou-so (November 6) and Ch'ien-t'un-wei (November 11). Serving under Yecen 葉臣 (1586-1648) in 1644, he subjugated a large part of Shansi, and commanded the artillery of his banner in the taking of the provincial capital, Taiyuanfu. He also followed Dodo [q.v.] in Honan and Kiangnan, making effective use of his artillery.

In 1645 he served under Bolo [q.v.] in the subjugation of Chekiang, and he became governor-general of that province. He recommended that opportunity for an official career be given to scholars by renewal of the civil service examinations and that agricultural taxes be lightened. Both of these suggestions were decreed by the emperor. He was successful in resisting the attacks of the Southern Ming armies under Fang Kuo-an (a brigade-general for Prince Lu, see under Chu I-hai) and Ma Shih-ying [q.v.]. In December 1645 he was made governor-general of Chekiang and Fukien. He continued to be successful in defeating supporters of Ming princes, not only in Chekiang but in Honan and Kiangnan which he "pacified" in 1646. Pleading illness, he resigned about the end of 1647; but as his successor had not arrived, he continued in office for some months during which his forces regained three more districts and captured Southern Ming leaders. In 1649 he was made governor-general of Chihli, Shantung, and Honan. In 1652 he was given the hereditary title of viscount (jinggini hafan 精奇尼哈番) of the first class. He died soon after and was given posthumously the honorary title of Grand Guardian of the Heir Apparent and the name Chung-ch'in 忠勤. He was highly praised by Emperor Shêng-tsu (see under Mêng Ch'iao-fang).

[ 1/243/11a; 2/78/13a; 4/5/11a; Hauer, E., K'ai-kuo fang-lüeh pp. 277, 281, 294 ff., 575; 1/177/4a; 34/275/4a.]