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Kanggūri

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Kanggūri 康果禮, d.1631, and his younger brother, Kakduri 喀克都里, (d. 1634), were natives of the Namdulu 那木都魯 district, situated on a branch of the Suifun 綏芬 river [410] near the modern city of Nikolsk, Siberia. Around the sources of this river were settled the four clans of Suifun, Ninggūta 寧古塔, Nimača 尼馬察, and Namdulu, forming one division of the Weji 握集 tribe of Jurjen, or Manchus. This group was known to the Ming historians as the Wildmen of the Eastern Sea, and since distance had kept them from being directly influenced by the Chinese, they became willing allies of Nurhaci [q.v.) in his campaigns against China. In 1610, as the result of an expedition sent under the command of Eidu [q.v.] into this territory, Nurhaci secured the allegiance of some of the Weji clans. Kanggūri and Kakduri, together with neighboring chieftains,-among them Yek šu and Minggantu (qq.v. ]--brought over a thousand of their tribesmen to join Nurhaci's standard. Out of these were formed six niru (companies of about 300 men each) of which two were put under the command of Kanggūri and Kakduri and incorporated in the Plain White Banner. Kanggūri was further given a niece of Nurhaci, daughter of his younger brother Murhaci (see under Nurhaci), for a wife. In 1618 he distinguished himself at the capture of Fu-shun (May 9) and in 1621 at the taking of Shên-yang (May 4).

After the death of Nurhaci, Kakduri rose to be commander of the Plain White Banner, while Kanggūri, though the elder, was made assistant to him. Both men took part in 1627 in the expedition into Korea under the leadership of Amin [q.v.].

In 1629 when the Manchus penetrated inside the Great Wall, the Plain White Banner was first to force an entrance into the city of Tsun-hua on the northeast side. For this exploit Kakduri received promotion and the special title of gasha baturu, "bird-hero", in reference to his rapid movements in battle. Meanwhile Kanggūri was ordered to join in the advance on Peking, in front of which the Chinese armies under Yüan Ch'ung-huan, Tsu Ta-shou and Man Kuei[qq.v.] had taken their stand. In the subsequent fighting Kanggūri was accused of cowardice and degraded. After his death in 1631, the post of captain in his company (later known as company 15 of the first division of the Plain White Banner) remained hereditary for his descendants. In 1631 Kakduri was dispatched with the commander of the Plain White Banner, to disrupt the island fortifications of the Chinese, and continued to be prominent in the warfare of the following three years. In 1634 he was reported to be on the point of deserting and to have transferred his possessions to his native district of Namdulu, but he died within a few months. After his death his brother's widow, daughter of Murhaci, and others confirmed the truth of the report, with the result that Kakduri's sons were disinherited. The leadership of his own company (later known as company 13 of the first division of the Plain White Banner) passed to the descendants of his brother.

In 1695 company 14 was formed as an outgrowth of company 13 and in this company the descendants of Kakduri eventually regained an hereditary post. Among the sons of Kanggūri the most prominent was Laita (see under Gubadai) who was posthumously rewarded with a dukedom in 1727 for his exploits in the San-fan War (1673-81).

[ 1/233/4b;2/4/12a;3/262/22a;11/7/47a;11/8/15b; 34/156/9a;34/157/la.]
GEORGE A. KENNEDY